History Of Mohenjo-Daro
One of the oldest cities in South Asia is the Mohenjo-Daro (city of the dead). About 4000 years ago, this city was built in Sindh, Pakistan. Thousands of years ago, this huge city was built without any modern technology. How would they have done in a systematic manner? This thing still makes scientists wonder. When the scientists began digging on here, they got soil and metal utensils, sculptures, relics of high buildings, large reservoirs, currencies, different types of stones even more strange items were received. Those people used live in houses like us and cultivate. This place has been excavated many times and we have got very little information about this bizarre city. Because of this ancient civilization, Pakistan is now seen as a national icon. The area of this city is approximately 618 acres (250 hectares). When British railway lines were being constructed in 1856, an English engineer had come to this ancient city in search of stones. People told the engineer that the houses of all the people here are made of these stones. The engineer understood that there must have been an ancient city here. This engineer first discovered this civilization which was near the river Indus. Due to being near the Indus River; it is also called the Indus Civilization. From approximately 2600 BCE to 3000 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization had existed. In this ancient civilization, there were more urban centers besides Mohenjo-Daro. Harappa, Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Rakhijhari. But Mohenjo-Daro was quite modern compared to the rest of the city. That is why the archaeologists started the search for the city first and tried to gather as much information as possible. Look at the design of the city of Mohenjo-Daro; it seems that it has been constructed by a successful civil engineer. But in reality, this was designed by urban craftsmen. After the collapse of the Indus Civilization (1900 BCE), Mohenjo-Daro was also ended. Nobody knows what happened to the people living there. But one thing is certain that these cities were constructed with the whole plan. While excavating, the Archaeologist discovered that some houses had a height of 3 floors and there was a bathroom arrangement. Keeping the security in mind, the wall of stones was constructed around the city. Archaeologist believed that people of that time used to cultivate rice and wheat. In 1922, R. D. Banerji started the excavation of Mohenjo-Daro and while digging, he received many Buddhist artifacts. Then it was estimated that here the history of thousands of years is suppressed. Kashinath Narayan Dikshit in 1924 and John Marshall started the excavation work of R.D. Banerji in 1925. By 1965, many archaeologists conducted excavation work here, but later stopped the research by saying that because of excavation, nature is causing great damage. During the excavation of Mohenjo-Daro, it also came to know that people of that time were very good in mathematics. All the bricks used to build the house in Mohenjo-Daro were the equal weight. During the excavation, archaeologists have also found music instruments and toys. These proofs show that the people of Indus Civilization were fond of songs. During the excavation, medicines, comb, and oil were also found. Archaeologists inspected the skeleton found there, which showed that the fake teeth of those people were also engaged. It implies that they had a very good knowledge of medicine too. Metal jewelry, cotton clothes, tools, coins, lamps, paintings and many other things have been kept in museums in the country and abroad. During the excavation, some scripts were also found. This shows that people of that time knew how to read and write. The civilization of more than 5000000 people became totally extinct after the arrival of an earthquake. Some experts believe that there were some enemies of Mohenjo-Daro at that time, and some of them attacked Mohenjo-Daro and it ended.