When And How Did Islam Begin In India?
Islam is one of the fastest spreading religions in a very short time in the world. Today Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity. It is speculated that by 2070, Islam will become the world’s largest religion. In India, Islam is the second largest religion with 14 percent population. According to the Muslim population, India is in second place after Indonesia. India will probably become the world’s largest Muslim population by 2050. After listening to the word “Islam”, curiosity and questions arise in the mind. The biggest question is, when and how did Islam begin in India? But if we look at history carefully, will know that Islam had entered India in the middle of the 6th century. And this started from Malabar of Kerala. Arab traders used to come here to increase trade with South Asia. According to the book “History of India” written by Henry Miers Elliot, in 630 AD, the first time a Muslim passenger ship was seen on the Indian coast. The first mosque “Cheraman Juma Mosque” in India was built in Kodungallur of Kerala in 629 AD. This mosque was built by Arab businessman Malik Deenar. This is one of the oldest mosques in the world. This mosque is proof of Islam’s first impression on India. Islam’s direct influence on India was in the 8th century. At that time, large-scale Muslims attacked India. The name of the first person to attack India is Muhammad bin Qasim. Bin Qasim was the commander of Iran’s largest empire “Umayyad” at the time. Bin Qasim attacked the city of Karachi with his 6000 soldiers in Sindh province. At that time was the rule of Hindu Raja Dahir in Sindh province. Bin Qasim had won such a big victory at the age of only 17. After that victory, he started planning to attack other states of India with his army. Bin Qasim wrote letters to Hindu kings in which he had told them to accept Islam and surrender. But in the meantime, the governor of the Umayyad Empire Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf died. Then Bin Qasim had to stop his campaign and had to return to Iraq. After this, in the 10th century, Mahmud Ghazni made many attacks on India. In which the robbery of Somnath temple was prominent. After winning Punjab, he merged Punjab into the Ghaznavids Empire. From the 12th century onwards, the deep impact of Islam began in the India. In 1175, Muhammad Ghori attacked Multan first. Slowly Muhammad Ghori had captured many states of western India. Later he turned his stance towards the East. At that time in the east was the reign of Hindu emperor Prithviraj Chauhan. The “Battle of Tarain” between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan was fought twice. Prithviraj Chauhan won the first battle of Tarain in 1191. But after this, Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain in 1192. In 1194, Ghori defeated King Jaya-Chandra of Gahadavala dynasty and strengthened his power. However, Muhammad Ghori later went back to Afghanistan. After leaving India, Ghori handed his power to his slave Qutb al-Din Aibak. Qutb al-Din Aibak founded the Mamluk dynasty and became the first Sultan of Delhi Sultanate. After that, Bakhtiyar Khilji, commander of Qutb al-Din Aibak, expand the state by winning Bihar in 1203. During this attack, Bakhtiyar Khilji burns the world’s oldest Nalanda and Vikramashila universities. In the next year, Bakhtiyar Khilji won Bengal and played a key role in establishing Islam there. Sufi saints had contributed a lot in the peace propagation of Islam. Little artisans and untouchables had the great affection towards the Sufi movement. The Sufi saints were against forcible conversion of religion. Sufi saint Ahmad Sirhindi advocated acceptance of Islam only with complete peace from other communities. Islam cannot be mentioned in India without Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had brought Islam to a new dimension in India. Aurangzeb had adopted Fatawa-e-Alamgiri law in his kingdom strictly. At the time of Aurangzeb, most religion conversions were happened in India. He was the first ruler of India, who had imposed Sharia law on non-Muslims. Akbar and later rulers were quite generous on non-Muslims. Aurangzeb had the dream that he wanted to convert India to Islam. Jizya tax which was eliminated by Akbar. Aurangzeb imposed Jizya tax on non-Muslims again. Under which non-Muslims were taxed on the basis of religion. On the other hand, also there was a massive change of religion in Kashmir in large part. Kashmiris asked help from 9th Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. When he protested against Aurangzeb. Then Aurangzeb killed Guru Teg Bahadur. Even today, this day is celebrated as Guru Parv. Aurangzeb made the Quran the basis of his rule. And even tried to control the festivals of non-Muslims. After the establishment of Islam in North India, Aurangzeb turned to the South. But due to the growing dominance of the Marathas, he had to face many problems in winning the South. Therefore, Aurangzeb led his army in the South in 1683. He spent the last 25 years of his reign, in that campaign. There were many protests in India, due to Aurangzeb’s policies. By the death of Aurangzeb on March 3, 1707, the Mughal Empire had become very weak. But unfortunately, the cracks between Hindus and Muslims had become very deep. But unfortunately, the cracks between Hindus and Muslims had become very deep. India was economically poor and had divided into two major religions. Therefore, the British did not have to work hard to make India a slave.
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