Why Did Alexander Return From India After Destroying Northern India?
Everyone knows that Alexander was a great king. Alexander was born in July 356 BC. Whenever history refers to great warriors, Alexander comes at the top. Because Alexander wanted to establish his empire over the whole world. To fulfill his dream, he fought his first war in 334 BC. At that time, his age was only 22 years. After that, he continued his war campaign for the next 10 years. And finally, his journey ended in India. Here he started capturing northern India. But it is surprising that Alexander, who wanted the whole world conquered, he had to return empty-handed from India. But why Alexander wanted to capture the whole world, and why did he reach India? The first reason is that Alexander wanted to win the Indian empires from the old Indian provinces. That is why Alexander was declared a successor. Alexander is also known as a man taking revenge from the “great Indian kings”. Northern India was the province of the Persian Empire, which was part of his according to Alexander. The second reason is that Alexander wanted to reach the end of the world. Alexander accepted Aristotle as his teacher. According to him the end of the world was the ocean. But at that time he had no modern map. So he did not know that the ocean is very big. But there was another continent between him and the sea. And he has to prove that he had reached the end of the world. Therefore, in his eyes where the sea ends the world ends too. He did not know that his Indian campaign would be very long. He thought that India would be a small place near the sea. But the situation did not go according to their plan. When Alexander invaded India for the first time, he was totally unaware of Indian geography. If he reaches Taxila then he would get information related to Indian geography, but it did not happen. Alexander had to face the opposition of the Indian public and his King Porus. Battle of the Hydaspes was fought between Alexander and Porus in May 326 BC. Porus was defeated in this battle. This war was one of the most difficult battles in Alexander’s life. Alexander’s army did not know about India’s tropical change. Therefore, his army had to deal with diseases, wild animals, etc. But the Macedonian army was fighting for the last 12 years. They wanted to return home now. Because after conquering the Indian empire they had collected a lot of money. So there was no point in fighting with India. Macedonian army had reached the Hydaspes River. But Alexander knew that there was powerful. Nanda empire ahead of the river. I.e. the Magadha Empire at that time. There were millions of elephants, horses, and soldiers in Magadha’s army. There were few thousand horses and soldiers left in Alexander’s army. After seeing such a large army of Magadha, the courage of Alexander’s army was broken. Then the news of the revolt in Persia was found and Alexander returned to Persia. According to the ancient historians, Alexander’s army revolted near the Hydaspes River, so Alexander had to return. Although some modern writers believe that Alexander intentionally rebelled to save his honor. Alexander knew that fighting with such a large army of Magadha would be the foolish step. That’s why he left India.
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